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Corruption Perceptions Index in 2015

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According to the latest report by the Berlin-based Transparency International (TI), India has moved up nine spots on the Corruption Perceptions Index in 2015 to 76, from 85 in 2014 and 94 in 2013. Denmark led the rankings, the other top spots, from second to ninth, were occupied by Finland, Sweden, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Singapore and Canada. Denmark took the top spot scoring 91 points, while North Korea and Somalia were the worst performers, scoring just eight points each. Brazil, Burkina Faso, Thailand, Tunisia and Zambia are the other countries that shares the same ranking as India. Brazil was the biggest decliner, dropping 7 positions to rank 76 in 2015. China fared poorly, at 83. Pakistan is the only country among the SAARC countries, to have improved its score this year, though its rank remains poor at 117. The US rose one spot this year to 16th place with a score of 76, tying with Austria. The UK rose three spots to place 10th, with a score of 81 that tied it with Germany and Luxembourg. The watchdog uses data from institutions including the World Bank, the African Development Bank and business school IMD to compile the perceptions of the scale of public sector corruption. According to TI's analysis, the Americas territory and Asia-Pacific region has witnessed several large scale anticorruption movements and cases of public corruption and countries from both territories are faring poorly on the CPI. In fact all the emerging economies from the BRICS grouping -- Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa -- have scored less than 50 on the CPI with Brazil's score sliding down. Overall, two-thirds of the 168 countries on the 2015 index scored below 50 points on a scale from 0 (perceived to be highly corrupt) to 100 (perceived to be very clean). A poor score denoted widespread bribery, "lack of punishment for corruption and public institutions that don't respond to citizens' needs". Top ranked countries were characterized by high levels of press freedom, access to budget information, high levels of integrity among people in power, and independent judiciaries. Major scandals such as the one in Brazil's state oil giant Petrobras involving massive kick backs have resulted in the country's rankings plunging sharply this year. Graft allegations surrounding Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak has also been cited as an instance of why that country scored poorly at 50 over its last year's score of 52. Transparency noted that in places like Guatemala, Sri Lanka and Ghana, citizen activists have "worked hard to drive out the corrupt.

Not much improvement:

  1. But, the jump in rankings should not be construed as an improvement, as the country’s score on the index has stayed at 38 in both years.
  2. The improvement in rankings is partly because fewer countries were ranked in the latest report. In 2015, 168 countries were ranked on the index, down from 175 countries in 2014.
  3. India though does not have much to cheer about as neighbouring Bhutan has achieved a much better ranking of 27.

Corruption Perceptions Index in 2015

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According to the latest report by the Berlin-based Transparency International (TI), India has moved up nine spots on the Corruption Perceptions Index in 2015 to 76, from 85 in 2014 and 94 in 2013. Denmark led the rankings, the other top spots, from second to ninth, were occupied by Finland, Sweden, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Singapore and Canada. Denmark took the top spot scoring 91 points, while North Korea and Somalia were the worst performers, scoring just eight points each. Brazil, Burkina Faso, Thailand, Tunisia and Zambia are the other countries that shares the same ranking as India. Brazil was the biggest decliner, dropping 7 positions to rank 76 in 2015. China fared poorly, at 83. Pakistan is the only country among the SAARC countries, to have improved its score this year, though its rank remains poor at 117. The US rose one spot this year to 16th place with a score of 76, tying with Austria. The UK rose three spots to place 10th, with a score of 81 that tied it with Germany and Luxembourg. The watchdog uses data from institutions including the World Bank, the African Development Bank and business school IMD to compile the perceptions of the scale of public sector corruption. According to TI's analysis, the Americas territory and Asia-Pacific region has witnessed several large scale anticorruption movements and cases of public corruption and countries from both territories are faring poorly on the CPI. In fact all the emerging economies from the BRICS grouping -- Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa -- have scored less than 50 on the CPI with Brazil's score sliding down. Overall, two-thirds of the 168 countries on the 2015 index scored below 50 points on a scale from 0 (perceived to be highly corrupt) to 100 (perceived to be very clean). A poor score denoted widespread bribery, "lack of punishment for corruption and public institutions that don't respond to citizens' needs". Top ranked countries were characterized by high levels of press freedom, access to budget information, high levels of integrity among people in power, and independent judiciaries. Major scandals such as the one in Brazil's state oil giant Petrobras involving massive kick backs have resulted in the country's rankings plunging sharply this year. Graft allegations surrounding Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak has also been cited as an instance of why that country scored poorly at 50 over its last year's score of 52. Transparency noted that in places like Guatemala, Sri Lanka and Ghana, citizen activists have "worked hard to drive out the corrupt.

Not much improvement:

  1. But, the jump in rankings should not be construed as an improvement, as the country’s score on the index has stayed at 38 in both years.
  2. The improvement in rankings is partly because fewer countries were ranked in the latest report. In 2015, 168 countries were ranked on the index, down from 175 countries in 2014.
  3. India though does not have much to cheer about as neighbouring Bhutan has achieved a much better ranking of 27.

India and Myanmar: Untapped relations

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modi in myan copy copy.tif The relations between India and Myanmar are rooted in shared historical, ethnic, cultural and religious ties. Myanmar occupies a critical geo-strategic position in the world. It is a meeting point of South Asia, East Asia and South-East Asia.

India and Bangladesh: Needs diversification at economic level

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India and Bangladesh have long shared a warm relationship. Bangladesh shares a 4,095 (4,096) km international border with five Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram. The two countries share 4,095-km-long border of which Tripura shares 856-km border, West Bengal 2,216 km, Meghalaya 443 km, Mizoram 318 km and Assam 262 km.

India and Sri Lanka: Needs impetus and relook

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Sri lanka.jpgThe recent India’s efforts to secure Presidential pardon for five Indian fishermen sentenced to death in Sri Lanka, and the positive response from the Sri Lankan government is enough to indicate that both the countries are enjoying excellent bilateral relations. India had voiced concern over the death sentence passed on October 30, 2014 by the Colombo High Court on five fishermen - Emerson, P. Augustus, R. Wilson, K. Prasath and J. Langlet - on charges of smuggling heroin. They were arrested in 2011. India and Sri Lanka have in place a “legal architecture” to deal with such cases and cited an earlier instance in which the death sentences of two Indian nationals were commuted to life imprisonment by the then Sri Lankan president.

Nonetheless, India was more perturbed about China’s “warming relations” with Sri Lanka than the docking of the nuclear submarine. Amphibious landing ship, the Changbaishan and a frigate, Yuncheng, of the 18th escort fleet of Chinese navy sailed to the Colombo harbour in mid-August before leaving for a voyage in the Somali waters. The news of a second Chinese submarine docking in Sri Lanka comes days after the visit of Vietnam PM Nguyen Tan Dung to India and in complete disregard of India’s message to Lankan defence secretary Gotabaya Rajapaksa. It is to be noted that since 2010, 230 warships have called at Colombo port from various countries on goodwill visits and for refuelling and crew refreshment. A 1987 accord between India and Sri Lanka provides that respective territories - including Trincomalee - will not be used for activities prejudicial to each other's unity, integrity and security.

Positive aspects

  1. India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives are working together in the spirit of regional cooperation in order to ensure regional security. Galle Dialogue 2014 International maritime conference will be held in the port city of Galle on 1st and 2nd December, 2014.
  2. Further bolstering the existing bilateral military ties, a three-week long Indo-Lanka joint military exercise, called ‘Exercise-Mithra Shakthi’, involving 42 Indian Army Special Force personnel and 300 Sri Lankan counterparts has been at Hambantota. The joint military exercise took place despite notwithstanding India’s “serious concerns” over China’s submarines and warships being docked at Colombo port.
  3. The proposal to revive the Sethusamudram Shipping Channel Project has huge potential as it would save hours of sailing for many ships sailing for trade purposes and also increase the trade relations between India and Sri Lanka.
  4. Sri Lanka has assured India that its soil would not be used for terror attacks against its neighbour even as Colombo stepped up deportation of Pakistani nationals amid reports that they were involved in subversive acts directed at India. Sri Lanka has started deporting dozens of Pakistani nationals who have been staying in the country for long periods pending the processing of their applications.

Distressing trends

  1. The Sri Lankan navy has arrested 14 Indian fishermen for allegedly poaching in Sri Lankan waters. The fishermen belonged to Rameswaram and Jagadapattinam in Pudukottai district. The arrest comes days after five Indian fishermen on death row in Sri Lanka were released by the Sri Lankan government. These incidents need to be curbed.
  2. Sri Lanka’s government expressed “serious concern” and “hurt” over India’s decision not to extend visa-on-arrival scheme to Sri Lankans. India currently offers visa-on-arrival to tourists from 11 countries like Finland, the Philippines, Singapore and Japan. The only exceptions to the new rule will be nationals from Pakistan, Sudan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Sri Lanka and Somalia.
  3. Indo-Sri Lankan relations have not been the warmest of late with the then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh skipping the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting hosted by Sri Lanka in November, 2013. India has been strongly concerned over delayed political rights and power devolution promised to Sri Lanka’s minority Tamil population after the end of a three-decade-long civil war in 2009.
  4. Sri Lanka also appears to have ceded considerable geostrategic space to Pakistan to balance India’s regional strategic and security supremacy .The recent revelation of ISI’s strong presence in Colombo to mastermind and facilitate terror activities in India’s southern states. India understands that Sri Lanka could become India’s Achilles’ Heel - a weak spot where its two nuclear-armed rivals are threatening India’s national security interests and vital strategic assets in the southern peninsula.

Potential and proposals

  1. India will assist Sri Lanka in the establishment of Engineering and Automobile components SEZ which would be located near Trincomalee and will promote exports to the production chains in India. The proposed Engineering and Automobile components hub will also have a Skill Training Institute. India and Sri Lanka will work together towards the establishment of a Pharmaceutical manufacturing hub in Sri Lanka capitalising on the vast strides made by Indian Pharmaceutical industry in meeting the quality drug requirements worldwide at affordable prices.
  2. Recognising that India is Sri Lanka’s leading trade partner and that bilateral trade between the two countries has now reached USD 5 billion, it was agreed that the potential which remains to expand bilateral trade further to the tune of USD 10 billion would be exploited in the next three years.
  3. The signing of Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) will make the current economic engagement more comprehensive by bringing more investment and services into Sri Lanka. Under the proposed CEPA deal, India has offered additional concessions on garment quota of 8 million pieces that was granted. Besides, the 3 million pieces granted at zero duty earlier under the FTA, India has now agreed to allow another 3 million pieces more at zero duty and additional 2 million at 75 per cent margin of preference. India has already removed port entry restrictions and conditions of sourcing fabrics from it.
  4. In order to further tap and work out the beneficial aspects of the CEPA Sri Lanka and India should re-examine the feasibility and viability of constructing the rail-road links over Adam’s Bridge in the Palk Straits.  With a direct link to the developing of the Port of Trincomalee as a major entrepôt, Indian exports would find a convenient window to the Indian Ocean Rim countries to the East and the Pacific. As the world’s largest natural harbour, Trinco has huge potentialities as a port, a free trade zone and an exotic tourist destination. It is to be noted that if the CEPA is finally inked, India would reduce its negative lists by another 114 items while Sri Lanka would be reducing only 32 items. This is despite the fact that under the Indo-Sri Lanka FTA Sri Lanka was allowed to have a larger negative list (1,180 tariff lines) than India (429 tariff lines).
  5. Both sides must implement the CEPA because it provides for redressal through non-governmental means by providing for a dispute resolution mechanism; and also envisages economic cooperation in a wide range of areas selected by Sri Lanka alone. At this juncture, India needs a much diversified and multi-faceted approach towards Sri Lanka. The diplomacy must be dissociated from domestic politics. India should try to correct the growing trade imbalances with Sri Lanka. India should establish a much wider strategic relations with Sri Lanka.

Reinvigorating SAARC to rejuvenate SAFTA

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It is often said that economic imperatives determine the polity and political decisions. But, political condition may also influence the economic conditions. But ultimately, even that political condition is also decided by the economy. In other words, it seems to be a classic ‘chicken-egg’ syndrome, but in most cases, the economic turmoil has a direct bearing on the political system. An incapable polity may or may not negatively impact the economy in every scenario, but a bad economy has unilaterally caused political upheaval throughout human history.

Nepal: Sushil Koirala is PM

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sushilkoiralaThe fractious lawmakers of Nepal elected veteran politician Sushil Koirala as 37th prime minister of the country, with the huge task to steer through a new constitution to complete the Himalayan nation’s stalled peace process. The Nepali Congress leader became Prime Minister of Nepal with the support of the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML), ending months of political instability following last year’s elections.

Telangana: 29th state in the making

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After dithering for nearly four years, the ruling Congress and the UPA have accepted one of the oldest demands in independent India for a separate state and asked the government to split Andhra Pradesh. The new proposed State - that culminates a bloody agitation that cost hundreds of lives - will have 10 districts including the city of Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana will, however, have to share Hyderabad as a joint capital for 10 years. The decision by the government is definitely a political masterstroke to check-mate its opponents ahead of the 2014 general elections. The Congress followed a well decided script on the Telangana issue. The UPA coordination committee first unanimously endorsed the move to divide Andhra Pradesh and the Congress Working Committee (CWC), the highest decision making body of the party, followed it up by unanimously passing a resolution, requesting the central government to "take steps in accordance with the Constitution of India to form a separate state of Telangana".

XIth Conference of the Parties (COP 11), 2012 : At Hyderabad

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CoP 11.jpg Nature welcomes any technology for the survival of human being but damns those technologies which are against the nature

The 11th Conference of Parties on the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the 6th Meeting of Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety was held in Hyderabad. Both the meeting witnessed participation of 2000 delegates from around 150 nations. Jayanthi Natarajan, Minister of Environment and Forests for India, served as the President of the COP. The conference basically discussed the issue of mobilisation of financial resources for protection of biodiversity and the delegates tried to find out commendable solutions for the issues of the Earth’s bio-diversity. One of the ways discussed by the participants at the conference to raise the financial resources for protection of biodiversity is by employing the so-called innovative mechanisms like making payments for ecosystem services and biodiversity offsets.  COP10 at Nagoya, Japan in 2010 had set 20 biodiversity targets known as Aichi targets and had also adopted a 10-year strategic plan to achieve those targets. 193 countries are parties to CBD adopted at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
The main focus of COP-11 was on the following issues: (a) the conservation of biological diversity; (b) biodiversity and livelihoods; (c) integration of value of Biodiversity in national planning and accounting process; (d) the sustainable use of the components of biological diversity; (e)strategy for resource mobilization; (f) operationalization of Nagoya Protocol; and (g) coastal and marine biodiversity.

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